Rhyolite Domes and Subsequent Offlap of Pliocene Carbonates on Volcanic Islets and San Basilio (Baja California Sur, Mexico)

San Basilio basin in Baja California Sur (Mexico) exhibits distinct styles of volcanism that interrupted phases of normal sedimentation correlated with the Zanclean Stage (Lower Pliocene). Sea cliffs around a 4-km2 bay opening onto the Gulf of California are dominated by rhyolite, mudstone, sandstone, and limestone. Volcanism associated with re-sedimented hyaloclastite is regionally uncommon and the goal was to investigate interactions between volcanic events and intervals of stability represented by fossil-rich strata. Methods of study involved a combination of microfossil and macrofossil analyses. Relating the basin’s faults to Pliocene development in the greater Gulf of California was a secondary goal. Microfossils Bolivina bicostata and B. interjuncta recovered from mudstone indicate an initial water column of 150 m. An abrupt hydromagmatic explosion ruptured the mudstone cover, followed by banded rhyolite flows inter-bedded with sandstone. Outlying limestone beds with the index fossil Clypeaster bowersi are separated from rhyolite by conglomerate eroded under intertidal conditions. A renewed phase of activity saw eruption of smaller volcanoes in the basin center semi-contemporaneous with pecten limestone deposited on unstable slopes. Normal faults conform to a pattern of extensional rifting in the proto-gulf, followed by cross-cutting faults indicating the onset of transtensional tectonics beginning about 3.5 Ma.

In collections

File details
ID Label Size Mimetype Created
OBJ OBJ datastream 6.07 MiB application/pdf 2020-06-15
TN TN 25.72 KiB image/png 2020-11-03